美味猕猴桃‘徐香’与长果猕猴桃远缘杂交亲和性的解剖学研究 齐秀娟 方金豹

教你如何在网上轻松赚钱QIXIUJUAN,XUSHANKUN,ZHANGWEIYUAN,LINMIAOMIAO,FANGJINBAO

(ZHONGGUONONGYEKEXUEYUANGUOSHUSHENGZHANGFAYUYUPINZHIKONGZHIZHONGDIANKAIFANGSHIYANSHI,ZHONGGUONONGYEKEXUEYUANZHENGZHOUGUOSHUYANJIUSUO,ZHENGZHOU 450009)

教你如何在网上轻松赚钱ZHAI YAO:YIMEIWEIMIHOUTAO(A.chinensis var.diliciosa) ‘XUXIANG’YUZHANGGUOMIHOUTAO(A. longicarpa)JINXINGYUANYUANZAJIAO,LIYONGYINGGUANGXIANWEIJINGGUANCHALEHUAFENGUANXINGWEI,CHANGGUISHILAQIEPIANFAGUANCHALESHOUJINGJIPEIFAYUGUOCHENGDECHAYI,TONGJILEZAJIAODANGDAIZHONGZISHULIANGHEZUOGUOLV。JIEGUOBIAOMING:ZHONGJIANZAJIAOZHANGGUOMIHOUTAODEHUAFENLINENGZAIMEIWEIMIHOUTAO‘XUXIANG’ZHUTOUDERUTUXIBAOBIAOMIANMENGFA、SHENGZHANG,DANSHENGZHANGSUDUBIDUIZHAODEHUANMAN;HUAFENGUANZAIHUAZHUZHONGSHENGZHANGSHICHUXIANBOWENZHUANGWANQU、TINGZHISHENGZHANG、PIANZHIZHIYANGUANBIBUGUIZECHENJIDENGXIANXIANG;SHOUJINGGUOCHENGYANCHI;PEITAIFAYUCHUXIANYICHANG;ZUOGUOLVJIAODI。ZHONGZIZONGSHUMINGXIANSHAOYUZHONGNEIZAJIAOHEZHONGNEIZIRANSHOUFENDESHULIANG,DANZHENGCHANGZHONGZIDEZHILIANGYUHOUZHEDAZHIXIANGTONG。

教你如何在网上轻松赚钱GUANJIANCI:MEIWEIMIHOUTAO;ZHANGGUOMIHOUTAO;ZHONGJIANZAJIAO;HUAFENGUANXINGWEI;SHOUJINGGUOCHENG;ZHONGZI

ZHONGTUFENLEIHAO: WENXIANBIAOSHIMA:A WENZHANGBIANHAO:0513-353X

Studies on Compatibility of Interspecific Hybridization Between Actinidia diliciosa ‘Xuxiang’ and A. longicarpa by Anatomy

QI Xiu-juan,XU Shan-kun,ZHANG Wei-yuan,LIN Miao-miao,and FANG Jin-bao※

(Key Laboratory for Fruit Tree Growth, Development and Quality Control / Zhengzhou Fruit Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Zhengzhou 450009 China)

Abstract:Following interspecific hybridization between A.chinensis var.diliciosa ‘Xuxiang’ and A. longicarpa, pollen tube behaviour among different crossing combinations was determined using fluorescence microscope, difference in fertilization process and embryo development were observed by conventional paraffin sectioning,and fruit-setting rate and hybrid seed quantity were investigated as well. The results showed that the pollen grains of A. longicarpa which is used by interspecific hybridization germinated and grew on the papillate stigma of ‘Xuxiang’, but the pollen tubes grew slower than those of the control, wave-like pollen tubes, growth stop and random deposition of callose along pollen tube wall were observed. Fertilization process delayed, embryo grew abnormally and the fruit-setting rate of interspecific hybridization was lower. The seed number in fruit was less than that of introspecific hybridization or open pollination, but there was no obvious difference in the quality of regular seed among crossing combinations.

教你如何在网上轻松赚钱Key wrds:A. diliciosa;A. longicarpa;interspecific hybridization;pollen tube behaviour;fertilization;seed

教你如何在网上轻松赚钱JUEDADUOSHUMIHOUTAOSHU(Actinidia Lindl.)ZHIWUSHUYUCIXIONGYIZHU,XIONGZHUDUIZUOGUOLV、DANGUOZHILIANG、KERONGXINGGUXINGWUDENGZHUDUOFANGMIANJUYOUZHIGANXIAOYING(metaxenia),BIZHEYIJINGJIUZHEIFANGMIANJINXINGGUOYANJIU(QIXIUJUAN DENG,2007)。ZHIWUYUANYUANZAJIAOTONGCHANGZHIZHIWUFENLEIXUESHANGBUTONGZHONG、SHUYISHANGLEIXINGJIANDEZAJIAO(JINGSHIXI,2000)。WEICHUANGZAOMIHOUTAOXINDEZHONGZHI,FENGFUQIBIANYILEIXING,YOUHENDUOYANJIUZHECONGSHIYUANYUANZAJIAODEYUZHONGSHIJIANBINGDUIQIQINHEXINGZHANKAIYANJIU。ZAOZAI1927NIAN,Fairchil D(1927)CHENGGONGDIJINXINGLERUANZAOMIHOUTAOYUMEIWEIMIHOUTAODEZAJIAO;ANHEXIANGDENG(1993)GUANCHALEMIHOUTAOSHU4GEZHONG、SHIJIGEZHENGFANJIAOZUHEHUAFENGUANZAICIRUISHANGDEXINGWEI;MUXIJINDENG(1990)BAODAOLEMIHOUTAOSHUZHONGJIANZAJIAOHOUQIDEPEITAIXUEBINGCHENGGONGDIJINXINGLEPEIZHENGJIU;LIANGTIEBINGHEMUXIJIN(1995)BAODAOLEMEIWEIMIHOUTAOHERUANZAOMIHOUTAOZHONGJIANZAJIAOSHIHUAFENGUANXINGWEIHEZAOQIPEITAIFASHENG。DANSHIZHENDUIMIHOUTAOSHUZHIWUZHONGJIANZAJIAOCONGSHOUFEN、SHOUJINGDAOZHONGZIXINGCHENGQUEFAXITONGDEYANJIU。

‘XUXIANG’SHIZAISHENGCHANZHONGPINZHIBIAOXIANYOULIANGDEMEIWEIMIHOUTAO(A. diliciosa)PINZHONG,ZHANGGUOMIHOUTAO(A. longicarpa) JUYOUGUOPIJIYIBOLI、WEISHENGSUCHANLIANGGAO、YOUDUTEDEFANGXIANGQIWEI(LIJIEWEI,2007)DENGTEDIAN。BENSHIYANZHONGYANJIU‘XUXIANG’MEIWEIMIHOUTAOHEZHANGGUOMIHOUTAOZHONGJIANZAJIAOSHIHUAFENGUANYUANWEIMENGFA、HUAFENGUANSHENGZHANG、SHOUJINGYIJIPEIFAYUGUOCHENG,BINGTONGJILEZAJIAODANGDAIZUOGUOLVJIZHONGZIDESHULIANG,YIQIWEIZHONGJIANZAJIAOYUZHONGTIGONGKEXUEYIJU。

1 CAILIAOYUFANGFA

1.1 CAILIAO

SHIYANYU2009NIANZAIZHONGGUONONGYEKEXUEYUANZHENGZHOUGUOSHUYANJIUSUOMIHOUTAOZIYUANPU(113°71′E,34°71′N)NEIJINXING。GONGSHICIXINGPINZHONGWEI8NIANSHENGMEIWEIMIHOUTAO‘XUXIANG’。YONGYURENGONGSHOUFENDEXIONGZHUWEIMEIWEIMIHOUTAO‘ZHENGXIONG1HAO’ZHONGNEISHOUFENHEZHANGGUOMIHOUTAOZHONGJIANSHOUFEN;ZIRANSHOUFENDEXIONGZHUWEIMEIWEIMIHOUTAODEHUNHEZHUXI,ZUOWEIZUOGUOLV、ZHONGZISHULIANGJIANCESHIYANDEDUIZHAO。‘XUXIANG’HUAQIWEI5YUE5-10RI;‘ZHENGXIONG1HAO’HEZHANGGUOMIHOUTAOHUAQIJUNWEI5YUE2-8RI。YUANDIGUANLISHUIPINGYIBAN,GUANLIFANGFAYIZHI,GEGESHUTISHUSHIJIBENYIZHI。

1.2 HUAFENCAIJIJIHUOLICEDING

教你如何在网上轻松赚钱FENBIECAIZHAISHOUFENYONGXIONGZHUSHUGUANWAIWEIZHONGBUJIJIANGKAIHUADEDALEIQIHUALEI,ZAISHINEIQUXIAHUAYAO,YONGLIUSUANZHIBAOHAOHOUMAIYUGUIJIAONEI,SHIWENXIAGANZAO1 d,JIANGSANCHUDEHUAFENFENBIESHOUJIYUTIEYOUBIAOQIANDEGANZAOXIAOPINGNEI,ZHI-80 ℃BINGXIANGZHONGBAOCUNBEIYONG。SHOUFENQIANQUCHUSHAOLIANGSHIQIHUIFUDAOCHANGWENZHUANGTAI,CAIYONGGUTIPEIYANGJIPEIYANGFACEDINGHUAFENSHENGHUOLI。PEIYANGJIWEI10 %ZHETANG+150 mg · L-1PENGSUAN+10 mg · L-1 Ca (NO3) 2·4H2O(YAOCHUNCHAO DENG,2005), 26 ℃TIAOJIANXIAPEIYANG5 h。LIANGZHONGXIONGZHUHUAFENSHENGHUOLIJUNDAYU50 %,KEYONGYUSHOUFEN。

1.3 ZAJIAOCHULIJIQIZUOGUOLVYUCHENGSHUGUOZHONGZIXINGZHUANGDIAOCHA

在‘徐香’猕猴桃树体花蕾完全露白期,选择3株树上花期一致、花质均一的单花预先套袋。纸袋采用中国农业科学院郑州果树研究所果袋公司生产的石榴专用羊皮纸袋。在开花当天上午9-10 时,分别用‘郑雄1号’和长果猕猴桃花粉进行人工点授,之后立即重新套袋,挂牌标记,同时选择自然授粉的花朵为对照,采用不套袋挂牌标记。于授粉后30 d调查坐果率。

教你如何在网上轻松赚钱GEZAJIAOZUHEGUOSHICHENGSHUHOUCAISHOU。DAISHINEIZIRANHOUSHURUANHUAHOU,YONGLIBROR ED-H200XINGDIANZITIANPINGCEDINGDANGUOZHILIANG。ZHONGZIBAIYUJIANDINGCANZHAOMUXIJINDENG(1990)DEFANGFA。MEIGEZAJIAOZUHETONGJI10GEGUOSHI。

1.4 SHOUFENHOUHUAFENGUANXINGWEIDEYINGGUANGXIANWEIJINGGUANCHA

FENBIEZAISHOUFENHOU1、3、5、7、10、20、30、35、45 h,MEIZHUSHUCAIJI3DUOHUA(GUOSHI),YONGDAOPIANCONGHUAZHUJIBU(ZIFANGYUHUAZHULIANJIECHU)QIEQUHUAZHU(HANZHUTOU),LIJIYONGFAAGUDINGYEGUDING。HUAZHUDEYAPIANCANZHAOKho HE Bear (1968)DEFANGFABINGLVEZUOGAIDONG:CONGGUDINGYEZHONGQUCHUHUAZHU,YONGZHENGLIUSHUICHONGXI2BIAN,YONG2 mol · L-1DENaOHFANGZHIZAI65 ℃DEHENGWENXIANGZHONGRUANHUACHULI5 h,YONG0.1 %DEBENANLANRANSEYERANSE(YONG0.1 mol · L-1 K3PO4RONGYEPEIZHI)3 h,ZHIZUOYAPIAN。ZAIOLYMPUS BX 51XINGYINGGUANGXIANWEIJINGXIAGUANCHAHUAFENMENGFAHEHUAFENGUANSHENGZHANGQINGKUANG,XUANQUDIANXINGTUPIANPAIZHAO。YOUYU‘XUXIANG’MIHOUTAODEHUAZHUJIAODA,SUOYIXIANFENBUFENPAIZHAO,RANHOUYONGphotoshopRUANJIANDIAOZHENGZHAOPIANDUIBIDU,PINJIECHENGWANZHENGHUAZHU。

1.5 SHOUJINGJIPEIFAYUGUOCHENGDEGUANCHA

FENBIEZAISHOUFENHOU20、35、45、55、75、100、120 hYIJIHUAHOU30、60、90、120 d,MEIZHONGCHULIFENBIECAIJI5GEZIFANG(YOUGUO)JINXINGFAAGUDINGYEGUDING。CHANGGUISHILAQIEPIANFAZHIPIAN,QIEPIANHOUDU8~10 µm,TIEFANSUMUJINGZHENGTIRANSE,ZAIOLYMPUS BX 51XINGGUANGXUEXIANWEIJINGXIAGUANCHA、SHEYING。LINGJIANGBUFENTONGZHONGSHOUFENHOU45 hDESHILAQIEPIANJINXING0.1 %DEBENANLANRANSEYERANSE3 h,ZHIYUYINGGUANGXIANWEIJINGXIAGUANCHA。

2 JIEGUOYUFENXI

2.1 ZHONGJIANSHOUFENHEZHONGNEISHOUFENZUHEDEZUOGUOLV

DIAOCHALESHOUFENHOU30 dGESHOUFENZUHEDEZUOGUOLVQINGKUANG。CONGBIAO1KEJIAN,ZHONGJIANZAJIAOZUOGUOLVMINGXIANDIYUZHONGNEIZAJIAOHEZIRANSHOUFEN。

BIAO1 ZHONGJIANSHOUFENYUZHONGNEISHOUFENZUHEZUOGUOLVBIJIAO

Table 1 Comparison on the fruit-setting rate between interspecific and intraspecific pollination

SHOUFENZUHE

Crossing combination

SHOUFENHUADUOSHU

教你如何在网上轻松赚钱Number of flowers pollinated

ZUOGUOSHU

教你如何在网上轻松赚钱Number of fruits obtained

ZUOGUOLV %

Fruit-setting rate

RENGONGZHONGNEISHOUFEN

教你如何在网上轻松赚钱Artificial intraspecific pollination

80

70

87.5Aa

RENGONGZHONGJIANSHOUFEN

Artificial interspecific pollination

60

28

46.7Cc

ZIRANZHONGNEISHOUFEN

教你如何在网上轻松赚钱Natural intraspecific pollination

80

52

65.0Bb

2.2 ZHONGJIANSHOUFENHEZHONGNEISHOUFENHOUHUAFENGUANZAIHUAZHUZHONGDESHENGZHANGCHAYI

教你如何在网上轻松赚钱MIHOUTAODEHUAFENLIJIHUAFENGUANJINGGUO0.1 %SHUIRONGXINGBENANLANRANSEHOU,ZAIZIWAIYINGGUANGXIANWEIJINGXIAKEGUANCHADAOHENQIANGDEYINGGUANG,HUAFENGUANDESHENGZHANGGUOCHENGKEYIQINGXIXIANSHICHULAI。‘XUXIANG’MIHOUTAOHUAZHUWEIBAISE,ZHANG7~10 mm,ZHUTOUCHENGXIEXING,QISHANGFUGAIYICENGRUTUXIBAO(TU1,1),HUAZHUJIBUWEIYUANTONGZHUANG。BENSHIYANSUOGUANCHADAODEDALIANGCAILIAOZHONG,ZHONGJIAN、ZHONGNEICHUANFENHOU,HUAFENLIJUNNENGZAIZHUTOUSHANGMENGFA,HUAFENMENGFALVZHONGNEIDAYUZHONGJIAN。

SHOUFENHOU1 hDEZHUTOUBIAOMIAN,ZHONGNEISHOUFENDEYIYOUYIXIEYINGGUANGDIANCHUXIAN(TU1,2);ZHONGJIANSHOUFENDESHANGWEIJIANYINGGUANGDIANCHUXIAN。SHOUFENHOU3 h,ZHONGNEISHOUFENDEHENDUOZHUTOUSHANGHUAFENLIDALIANGMENGFA,QIEZHENGQI,DUOSHUHUAFENGUANYIJINGCHUANGUOZHUTOUBIAOMIAN,HUAFENGUANXIANDUANJIAOXI(TU1,3);ZHONGJIANSHOUFENDEDUOSHUCHUXIANLEJIAOQIANGDEYINGGUANGDIAN,GEBIEYEYIZHANGCHULEHUAFENGUAN(TU1,4)。SHOUFENHOU7 h,ZHONGNEISHOUFENDEJUEDADUOSHUHUAFENGUANYIJINGGUIZEJINRUHUAZHUDAOSHENGZHANG,BINGDUOCHUCHUXIANPIANZHIZHISAI,FENBUJIAOWEIJUNYUN,YINGGUANGJIAOQIANG(TU1,5);ZHONGJIANSHOUFENDEHUAFENLIDALIANGMENGFA,BINGSHENGZHANGCHULEYIBUFENHUAFENGUAN,DANHAIMEIYOUANZHAOZHENGCHANGDESHENGZHANGFANGXIANGJINRUHUAZHUDAO,ERSHICHANJIEZAIZHUTOUBIAOMIAN,YUZHUTOUDERUTUXIBAOCHANRAOZAIYIQI(TU1,6)。SHOUFENHOU10 h~20 h,ZHONGNEISHOUFENJUEDADUOSHUHUAFENGUANYIZHANGDAOHUAZHUDIBU,QIEHUAFENGUANSHULIANGPANGDA(TU1,7);SHOUFENHOU20 h,ZHONGJIANSHOUFENDEHUAFENGUANDABUFENRENGZAIZHUTOUBIAOMIANJIUJIE,ZHIYOUHENSHAOBUFENJINRUHUAZHUDAOSHENGZHANG,QIEHUAFENGUANCHENGBOWENZHUANGNIUQU、HUAFENGUANDINGDUANPENGDACHENGDUNYUANXINGHUOJIANXIHUOSUODUANCHENGTUAN,BUFENYISHENGZHANGDAOHUAZHU1/2DEWEIZHI(TU1,8)。SHOUFENHOU30 h,ZHONGJIANSHOUFENDEHUAFENGUANYEYOUJISHAOBUFENDAODALEHUAZHUDIBU(TU1,9),PIANZHIZHISAIDEYINGGUANGHENQIANGLIE,DANCUNZAIHUAFENGUANFENBUZALUAN、NIUQU,HUAFENGUANNEIPIANZHIZHIFENBUBUJUNYUN、PIANZHIZHISAIZHANGDUANBUYIDENGXIANXIANG(TU1,10~11),ERQIEZHONGJIANSHOUFENDEHUAFENGUANBINGBUSUIZHESHOUFENSHIJIANDEYANZHANGERSHENGZHANGDAOHUAFENGUANJIBU(TU1,12)。

TU 1 ZHONGJIANHEZHONGNEISHOUFENHOUHUAFENGUANSHENGZHANGQINGKUANG

教你如何在网上轻松赚钱1:ZHUTOU;2:ZHONGNEISHOUFENHOU1 h;3:ZHONGNEISHOUFENHOU3 h;4:ZHONGJIANSHOUFENHOU3 h;5:ZHONGNEISHOUFENHOU7 h;6:ZHONGJIANSHOUFENHOU7 h;7:ZHONGNEISHOUFENHOU20 h;8:ZHONGJIANSHOUFENHOU20 h;9~11:ZHONGJIANSHOUFENHOU30 hJISHAOSHUHUAFENGUANDAODAHUAZHUDIBU,PIANZHIZHIFENBUBUJUNYUN,PIANZHIZHISHAIZHANGDUANBUYI;12:ZHONGJIANSHOUFENHOU45 h。

Fig. 1 Growth of pollen tube following interspecific or introspecific pollination

1:stigma;2:1 h after intraspecific pollination;3:3 h after intraspecific pollination;4:3 h after interspecific pollination;5:7 h after intraspecific pollination;6:7 h after interspecific pollination;7:20 h after intraspecific pollination;8:20 h after interspecific pollination;9-11:A few pollen arrived style base 30 h after interspecific pollination, Callose plugs with different length deposited irregularly;12:45 h after interspecific pollination.

2.3 ZHONGJIANSHOUFENHEZHONGNEISHOUFENHOUSHOUJINGGUOCHENGDECHAYI

MIHOUTAOSHIZHONGZHOUTAIZUODUOXINPI(TU2,1)JIANGGUO,DAOSHENGPEIZHU,LIAOXINGPEINANG。PEINANGFAYUCHENGSHUSHI3GEFANZUXIBAOCHENGPINZIXINGPAILIE,LUANXIBAOYUANXING,2GEZHUXIBAOBINGLIE,SHOUJINGQIANDABUFENPEINANGDE2GEJIHEHEBINGCHENGLECISHENGHE。HUAFENGUANJINRUZIFANGHOUZHIDAPEIZHU,YOUZHUKONGJINRUPEINANG,SHUYUZHUKONGSHOUJING。ZHUBEIZUINEICENGXIBAOZHINONG,PAILIEZHENGQI,CHENGWEIZHUBEIRONGZHANCENG。

ZHONGNEISHOUFENSHI,JISHAOSHUJULIHUAZHUDIBUJIAOJINDEPEINANGZAISHOUFENHOU20 hJIUYOUHUAFENGUANDAODAQIZHUKONGWEIZHI(TU2,2)。JUEDADUOSHUPEINANGZAISHOUFENHOU45 hHUAFENGUANPOHUAIZHUXIBAO,SHIFANGLIANGJINGZI(TU2,3)。SHOUFENHOU75 h,HENDUOPEINANGNEIFANZUXIBAOYIJINGXIAOSHI,HEZIXIBAOZHIBIANNONG,CHUSHENGPEIRUHEFENLIEXIANYUHEZI,JISHOUJINGJIHESHOUXIANFENLIECHENGDUOGEPEIRUXIBAO,DANHEZIHAIMEIYOUBIANHUA(TU2,4)。SHOUFENHOU100 h,RENGKEYIJIANDAOXUDUOPEINANGNEIDEHEZIMEIYOUJINXINGFENLIE,ZHIYOUCHUSHENGPEIRUHEFENLIE(TU2,5)。ZAIYINGGUANGXIANWEIJINGXIAGUANCHASHOUFENHOU45 hDEPEINANG,FAXIANYOUDEPEINANGYIJINGWANCHENGSHOUJINGGUOCHENG,YOUDEPEINANGHAIWEIWANCHENGSHOUJING(TU2,6),ZHEISHIYOUYUHUAFENGUANDAODADESHIJIANBUTONGZAOCHENGDE。

ZHONGJIANSHOUFENSHI,ZAISHOUFENHOU55 h,HUAFENGUANSHENGZHANGDAODAZHUKONGWEIZHI,CONGYIGETUIHUADEZHUXIBAODESIZHUANGQIJINRUZHUXIBAO(TU2,7)。SHOUFENHOU75 h,FANZUXIBAOXIAOSHI,XINGCHENGHEZIHECHUSHENGPEIRUHE,HOUZHEHAIMEIYOUJINXINGFENLIE(TU2,8)。SHOUFENHOU120 h,HEZIHAIMEIYOUJINXINGFENLIE,CHUSHENGPEIRUHEJINXINGLEYICIFENLIE(TU2,9)HUOHENDUOPEINANGNEIDECHUSHENGPEIRUHEXIAOSHI,ZHISHENGXIASHANGWEIFENLIEDEHEZI(TU2,10),YEKEYIKANJIANYIXIEJIMEIYOUHEZIYEMEIYOUCHUSHENGPEIRUHEDEPEINANG(TU2,11),TONGQIKEKANJIANGANGSHIFANGDELIANGGEJINGZIXIANGZHUXIBAOFANGXIANGYIDONG(TU2,12)。CONGSHOUJINGSUDUSHANGLAIKAN,ZHONGJIANSHOUFENBIZHONGNEISHOUFENJINXINGSUDUHUANMAN。

TU 2 ZHONGJIANHEZHONGNEISHOUFENHOUSHOUJINGGUOCHENGGUANCHA

1:ZIFANGHENGQIE,SHIXINPI(Ca)HEPEIZHUYUANJI(Op);2:ZHONGNEISHOUFENHOU20 h,GEBIEHUAFENGUANSHENGZHANGYIDAODAPEINANGFUJIN;3:ZHONGNEISHOUFENHOU45 h,HUAFENGUANPOHUAIZHUXIBAO,SHIFANGLIANGJINGZI;4:ZHONGNEISHOUFENHOU75 h,SHOUJINGHOUHEZIXIBAOZHIBIANNONG,CHUSHENGPEIRUHEFENLIEXIANYUHEZI,SHOUJINGJIHEFENLIEYIXINGCHENGDUOGEPEIRUXIBAOSHI,HEZIRENGWEIYOUBIANHUA;5:ZHONGNEISHOUFENHOU100 h,HEZIHAIMEIYOUFENLIE,ZHIYOUCHUSHENGPEIRUHEFENLIE;6:YINGGUANGXIANWEIJINGXIAXIANSHIZHONGNEISHOUFENHOU45 hWANCHENGSHOUJINGGUOCHENG,PEINANGZHONGGAOLIANGXIANSHIBIAOSHIHUAFENGUANYIJINRUPEINANG;7:ZHONGJIANSHOUFENHOU55 h,HUAFENGUANJINRUPEINANG;8:ZHONGJIANSHOUFENHOU75 h,FANZUXIBAOTUIHUA,XINGCHENGHEZIHECHUSHENGPEIRUHE;9:ZHONGJIANSHOUFENHOU120 h,HEZIMEIYOUFENLIE,SHOUJINGJIHEJINXINGYICIHENGXIANGFENLIE;10:ZHONGJIANSHOUFENHOU120 h,ZHIYOUWEIFENLIEDEHEZI,CHUSHENGPEIRUHEXIAOSHI;11:ZHONGJIANSHOUFENHOU120 h,MEIYOUHEZIYEMEIYOUCHUSHENGPEIRUHEDEPEINANG;12:ZHONGJIANSHOUFENHOU120 h,GANGSHIFANGDEJINGZI。

Fig. 2 Fertilization process following interspecific or introspecific pollination

1:Cross section of ovary, showing carpels(Ca) and ovule primordium(Op);2:Pollen tube close to embryo sac 20 h after intraspecific pollination;3:Pollen tube destroyed the synergid and released two sperms 45 h after intraspecific pollination;4:75 h after intraspecific pollination,the cytoplasm of zygote became dense, the division of the primary endosperm was earlier than that of the zygote, and the primary endosperm cell divided into endosperm cells while the zygote didn’t divide;5:The zygote didn’t divide while the primary endosperm divided 100 h after intraspecific pollination;6:Fertilzation finished 45 h after intraspecific pollination under the fluorescence microscope. The high light in embryo sac indicated that pollen tube entered embryo sac;7:The pollen tube entered the embryo sac 55 h after interspecific pollination;8:The antipodal cell divided into zygote and primary endosperm 75 h after interspecific pollination;9:The zygote didn’t divide while the polar nucleus had a crosswise division 120 h after interspecific pollination;10:The zygote didn’t divide while the primary endosperm disappeared 120 h after interspecific pollination;11:The embryo sac without any zygote and primary endosperm 120 h after interspecific pollination;12:Sperms just discharged into the embryo sac 120 h after interspecific pollination.

2.4 ZHONGJIANSHOUFENHEZHONGNEISHOUFENZUHEZHONGPEISHENGZHANGDECHAYI

教你如何在网上轻松赚钱HUAHOU30 dSHI,ZHONGNEISHOUFENDEPEINANGNEICHUXIANLEDALIANGDEYOULIHE,PEIRUXIBAOBIANDENONGHOU(TU3,1),SHULIANGMINGXIANDUOYUZHONGJIANSHOUFEN,LIANGZHONGSHOUFENPEINANGNEIHEZIJUNSHANGWEIFENLIE。HUAHOU60 dSHI,ZHONGNEISHOUFENPEIRUXIBAOJIHUCHONGMANPEINANG,QIXIBAOZHIZHUJIANBIANDENONGHOU,XIBAOHEMINGXIANZENGDA,XINGCHENGLEXIAOQIUXINGPEI(TU3,2);ZHONGJIANSHOUFENPEIRUXIBAOSHULIANGHENSHAO,YEWEIJIANXIAOQIUXINGPEICHUXIAN。HUAHOU90 d,ZHONGNEISHOUFENPEITIYULINJINDEPEIRUXIBAOXINGCHENGJIANXI,BINGYOUMINGXIANKUODADEQUSHI(TU3,3);ZHONGJIANSHOUFENPEIRUXIBAOSHULIANGZHUJIANBIANDUO,DANWEIJIANPEITICHUXIAN(TU3,4)。HUAHOU120 d,ZHONGNEISHOUFENDEPEIRUXIBAOFENBUYUKAOPEINANGBINEICEZHOUWEI,CHUXIANLEXINXINGPEIHUOCHENGSHUPEI(TU3,5);ZHONGJIANSHOUFENCHUXIANPEIRUTUIHUA(TU3,6)、ZHILIPEI(TU3,7)YIJIBAIPEIHEKONGPEINANG(TU3,8)。

TU 3 ZHONGJIANHEZHONGNEISHOUFENHOUPEITAIFAYUDECHAYI

教你如何在网上轻松赚钱1:ZHONGNEISHOUFENHOU30 d,PEIRUXIBAOBIANDENONGHOU;2:ZHONGNEISHOUFENHOU60 d,PEIRUCHONGMANPEINANG,QIUXINGPEI;3:ZHONGNEISHOUFENHOU90 d,PEITIYULINJINPEIRUXIBAOXINGCHENGJIANXI,BINGYOUMINGXIANKUODADEQUSHI;4:ZHONGJIANSHOUFENHOU90 d,PEIRUXIBAOJINYIBUZENGDUO,DANWEIJIANPEITICHUXIAN;5:ZHONGNEISHOUFENHOU120 d,CHENGSHUPEI;6:ZHONGJIANSHOUFENHOUHOU120 d,PEINANGZHONGYANGDEPEIRUTUIHUAWEICANJI;7:ZHONGJIANSHOUFENHOUHOU120 d,DUOXIBAOBANGXINGPEI(GEBIEPEIZHU); 8:ZHONGJIANSHOUFENHOU120 d,BAIPEIHEKONGPEINANG。

教你如何在网上轻松赚钱Fig. 3 Differences in embryo development after interspecific or intraspecific pollination

教你如何在网上轻松赚钱1:Concentration of endosperm cells 30 d after intraspecific pollination;2:Embryo sac filled with endosperm 60 d after intraspecific pollination, globular embryo;3:Gap formation between embryo and endosperm cells 90 d after intraspecific pollination;4:Endosperm cells increase more, but no embryo, 90 d after interspecific pollination;5:Mature embryo, 120 d after intraspecific pollination;6:Aborted endosperm in the center of embryo sac, 120 d after interspecific pollination;7:Multi-cell baculiform embryo(few ovule), 120 d after interspecific pollination ;8:Aborted embryo and empty embryo sac, 120 d after interspecific pollination.

教你如何在网上轻松赚钱2.5 ZAJIAODANGDAIGUOSHIZHONGZIDIAOCHA

BIAO2XIANSHI,ZHONGJIANZAJIAOYUZHONGNEIZAJIAOHEDUIZHAOXIANGBI,DANGUOZHILIANGMINGXIANBIANXIAO,ZHONGZISHULIANGMINGXIANBIANSHAO,ERQIEZHONGJIANZAJIAOGEGEXINGZHUANGDEBIANYIXISHUDOUBIZHONGNEIZAJIAOHEDUIZHAODEGAO。BIANYIXISHUZUIDADESHIZHONGJIANZAJIAODEZHENGCHANGZHONGZISHU(141.7 %),QICISHIZHONGJIANZAJIAODEZHONGZIZONGSHU(134.3 %)HEZHONGJIANZAJIAOBAIYUZHONGZISHU(105.6 %),DOUDAYU100 %,SHUYUQIANGBIANYI,SHUOMINGGAIXINGZHUANGZAIXIANGTONGZAJIAOZUHEDEBUTONGGETIZHIJIANDECHAYIJIDA、XINGZHUANGJIBUWENDING,SUOYIZHONGJIANZAJIAOHUODEZHONGZIDESUIJIXINGHENQIANG,ZHONGJIANZAJIAODANGDAIGUOSHIZHONGZIDESHULIANGJIBUWENDING。BIANYIXISHUWEI0DESHIZHONGNEIZAJIAODEZHENGCHANGZHONGZIZHILIANG,SHUOMINGZHONGNEIZAJIAOSHISUIRANDANGUOZHILIANGLVEYOUBIANHUA,DANZHENGCHANGZHONGZIDEZHILIANGJIHUMEIYOUBIANHUA。CONGWAIGUANSHANGLAIKAN,ZHENGCHANGZHONGZIDAXIAOWEI2.0~2.2 mm,ERBAIYUZHONGZIBUJINBIANXIAO,ERQIEGANBIE。ZIRANSHOUFENDEGUOSHIZHONGZIZONGSHU、BAIYUZHONGZISHU、ZHENGCHANGZHONGZISHUJUNZUIGAO;BAIYUZHONGZIZHILIANGYIZHONGJIANZAJIAODEZUIZHONG。DUIBUTONGZAJIAOZUHEDEGUOSHIDANGUOZHILIANGYUGELEIXINGZHONGZISHULIANGZUOXIANGGUANXINGFENXI,JIEGUOWEIDANGUOZHILIANGYUZHONGZIZONGSHULIANGCHENGZHIXIANXIANGGUAN:y=10.736x-91.731,r=0.700 **,ZHEIYUQIANRENYANJIUJIEGUO(Hopping,1976;Grant & Ryugo,1984)JIBENYIZHI;DANGUOZHILIANGYUYUZHENGCHANGZHONGZISHUCHENGZHIXIANXIANGGUAN y=9.5543x-124.76 ,r=0.800**;QITAMEIYOUXIANGGUANXING。SHUOMINGGUOSHIZHONGZHONGZIZONGSHUHEZHENGCHANGZHONGZISHUYINGXIANGGUOSHIDEDANGUOZHILIANG,ZHEIYEJIESHILEZHONGJIANZAJIAOGUOSHIDANGUOZHILIANGJIAOXIAODEYUANYIN。

教你如何在网上轻松赚钱BIAO2 ZAJIAODANGDAIDANGUOZHONGZISHULIANGDEBIJIAO

Table 2 Comparison in seed number between different pollination combination

SHOUFENZUHE

Pollination combination
平均单果质量/g

Average fruit weight

( CV/%)
单果种子数

教你如何在网上轻松赚钱Seed number

( CV/%)
败育种子数

Aborted seed number
( CV/%)
败育种子质量/mg Aborted seed weight
( CV/%)
正常种子数

Normal seed number
( CV/%)
正常种子质量/mg

Normal Weight ( CV/%)
人工种内授粉

Artificial intraspecific pollination
51.7 Aa

(18.2)
459 Ab
(23.1)
60.9 Bb
(54.4)
0. 9 Bb
(22.2)
398 Ab
(24.4)
2.0 Aa
(0)
人工种间授粉

Artificial interspecific pollination
26.7 Bb

(33.3)
61 Bc
(134.3)
7 Cc
(85.3)
1.8Aa
(105.6)
54 Bc
(141.7)
2.0Aa
(19.0)
自然种内授粉

Natural intraspecific pollination
54.5 Aa
(16.9)
557 Aa
(12.2)
134 Aa
(81.6)
0.9 Bb
(22.2)
423 Aa
(25.9)
2.0 Aa
(10.0)
注:CV,变异系数;多重比较采用新复极差法,同字母间差异不显著,小写表示P<0.05水平,大写表示P<0.01水平。

Note:CV, Coefficient Vaviance;Small letters and capital letters in the same column mean significant difference at 0.05 level and 0.01level tested by Duncan’s SSR, respectively.

3 TAOLUN

教你如何在网上轻松赚钱CONGBENSHIYANDEJIEGUOLAIKAN,MEIWEIMIHOUTAO‘XUXIANG’YUZHANGGUOMIHOUTAOZHONGJIANZAJIAO,JUYOUYIDINGCHENGDUDEZAJIAOBUQINHEXING,ERQIEZHEIZHONGBUQINHEXINGCUNZAIYUSHOUFEN、SHOUJINGYIJIPEIFAYUDEZHENGGEGUOCHENG,JISHOUJINGQIANHOUDESHUANGZHONGZHANGAISHIDAOZHIZHEIZHONGZAJIAOQINHEXINGCHADEZHUYAOYUANYIN。JUTIBIAOXIANWEIHUAFENYUANWEIMENGFALVDI,HUAFENGUANSHENGZHANGJIAOWAN、SHULIANGSHAO、BOWENZHUANGWANQU、PIANZHIZHIBUGUIZECHENJI、MODUANPENGDA,SHOUJINGYANCHI,PEIRUTUIHUA、XINGCHENGKONGPEIQIANGGANBIEZHONGZI、ZUOGUOLVDIDENGXIANXIANG。HUAFENGUANXINGTAIBIANHUADESHANGSHUXIANXIANGZAIZHONGHUAMIHOUTAOYUMEIWEIMIHOUTAOM59ZAJIAO(Harvey et al.,1991),YIJIMEIWEIMIHOUTAOYURUANZAOMIHOUTAOZAJIAOSHIYEYOUBAODAO(LIANGTIEBINGHEMUXIJIN,1995),TUICEHUAFENGUANSHENGZHANGSHOUZUDEYUANYINYUHUAFENGUANDINGDUANDESHENGZHANGJIPIANZHIZHIDEBUJUNYUNDUIJIYOUGUAN。

BENYANJIUZHONG,ZHANGGUOMIHOUTAODUI‘XUXIANG’SHOUFEN,ZHONGZIZONGSHUXIAJIANG,ZHONGZISHULIANGQUJUEYUSHIJISHOUJINGDEPEIZHUSHULIANG。GENJUQIANSHUHUAFENGUANXINGWEIJISHOUJINGZUOYONGDEGUANCHA,FENXIZAOCHENGZHEIZHONGJIEGUODEYUANYINSHI:(1)ZHUTOUDUIYUANYUANHUAFENDESHIBIEHEJIESHOUNENGLISHIDEZHUTOUSHANGHUAFENDEMENGFABENSHENSHULIANGJIUSHAO;(2)YINCHENJIPIANZHIZHI,YIZHONGHUAFENGUANZAIHUAZHUZHONGDESHENGZHANGBIAOXIANHUANMAN、NIUQUBIANXINGHUOZHETINGZHISHENGZHANG,DAOZHISHIJINENGJINRUZIFANGBINGSHUNLIDAODAZHUKONGWEIZHIDEHUAFENGUANSHULIANGSHAO,HENDUOPEIZHUMEIYOUWANCHENGSHUANGSHOUJINGZUOYONG;(3)YOUYUZHONGJIANZAJIAOHOUSHOUJINGGUOCHENGBIJIAOHUANMAN,DANGHUAFENGUANSHENGZHANGDAOZIFANGJULIHUAZHUJIBUJIAOYUANDEPEIZHUWEIZHISHI,PEINANGNEIDELUANXIBAOYIJIJIHEYOUKENENGYIJINGBUSHIZUIJIADESHOUJINGQI。

LINGWAI,ZHANGGUOMIHOUTAODUI‘XUXIANG’SHOUFEN,BAIYUZHONGZIZHILIANGBIDUIZHAOGAO,ZUOGUOLVJIAODI。FENXIZHEIZHONGJIEGUOCHANSHENGDEYUANYINSHI:ZHANGGUOMIHOUTAOSHOUFENSHI,JISHIYOUXIEHUAFENGUANSHUNLIDAODAZHUKONGBINGSHIPEINANGFASHENGLESHOUJINGZUOYONG,DANSHIZAISHOUJINGYIHOUPEITAIFAYUYICHANG,HUOZHONGTUYAOZHE,SHIDEZHONGZIXINGCHENGBUBAOMAN,SUOYIBAIYUZHONGZIZHILIANGBIDUIZHAOGAO,ZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGZAIGEGEDIAOCHAGUOSHIZHONGBIAOXIANSUIJIXINGHENQIANG,YOUYUHENDUOPEIZHUBUNENGFAYUCHENGZHENGCHANGDEZHONGZI,SUOYIZUAILEJIXUFAYUCHENGGUOSHI,DAOZHIZUOGUOLVHENDI。

教你如何在网上轻松赚钱ZHONGNEISHOUFENHEZIRANSHOUFENYECHANSHENGLEYIBUFENBAIYUZHONGZI。FENXIZHEIZHONGJIEGUOCHANSHENGDEYUANYINSHI:YOUXIEPEIZHULIHUAZHUJIBUJIAOYUAN,YIXIEPEIZHUGENBENMEIYOUJINXINGSHOUJING,HUOGANGGANGSHOUJINGJIUYOUYUZISHENYINGYANGBULIANGDENGYUANYINPEITAITINGZHIFAYUJIAOZAO,DAOZHIBAIYUZHONGZIDECHUXIAN。ZAISHIJIZONGQIEGUOSHIGUANCHAQIQIEMIANSHANGDEZHONGZISHI,YEGUANCHADAOZAIGUOBINGBUWEIBIEZHONGZISHULIANGJIAOGUOSHISHANGBUDUOYIXIE。

References

An He-xiang, Ferguson A R, Bank R J. 1993. Observation on the behavior of the pollen tube on p istils after introspecific and interspecific pollination of Actindia // The Botanical Society of China Association of Botanical Gardens. Plant Introduction and Acclimatization-8. Beijing: Science Press. ( in Chinese)

ANHEXIANG,Ferguson A R,Bank R J. 1993. MIHOUTAOZHONGNEIHEZHONGJIANCHUANFENHOUHUAFENGUANZAICIRUISHANGXINGWEIDEGUANCHA//ZHONGGUOZHIWUXUEHUIZHIWUYUANXIEHUI.ZHIWUYINZHONGXUNHUAJIKAN-DIBAJI. BEIJING:KEXUECHUBANSHE.

Fairchild D. 1927. The fascination of making a plant hybrid-being a detailed account of the hybridization of Actinidia arguta and A.chinensis. J Hered, 18: 49– 57.

Grant J A, Ryugo K. 1984. Influence of within-canopy shading on fruit size, shoot growth, and return bloom in kiwifruit. J Amer Soc Hort Sci, 109 (6):799– 802.

Harvey C F, Fraser L G, Kent J. 1991. Actinidia seed development in interspecific crosses.Acta Horticulturae. Second In ternational Symposium on Kiwifruit, 297: 71– 78.

教你如何在网上轻松赚钱Hopping M E. 1976. Structure and development of fruit and seeds in Chinese gooseberry (Actinidia chinensis Planch.) New Zealand. Journal of Botany, 14: 63– 68.

Jing Shi-xi. 2000. Breeding Science of Horticutural Crops. Beijing: China Agricultural University Press. (in Chinese)

教你如何在网上轻松赚钱JINGSHIXI. 2000. YUANYIZHIWUYUZHONGXUEZONGLUN. BEIJING: ZHONGGUONONGYECHUBANSHE.

KhoY O, Bear J. 1968. Observing pollen tubes by means of fluorescence. Euphytica, 17: 298– 302.

教你如何在网上轻松赚钱Liang Tie-bing, Mu Xi-jin. 1995. Observation of the pollen tube behavior and early embryogenesis following pollination following interspecific pollination between Actinidia deliciosa and A. arguta. Acta Botanica Sinica, 37 (8): 607– 612. (in Chinese)

LIANGTIEBING,MUXIJIN.1995.MEIWEIMIHOUTAOHERUANZAOMIHOUTAOZHONGJIANZAJIAOHUAFENGUANXINGWEIHEZAOQIPEITAIFASHENGDEGUANCHA. ZHIWUXUEBAO,37 (8):607– 612.

Li Jie-wei. 2007. Biological characteristics and evaluation of Actinidia longicarpa of New kiwifruit species. China Fruits, 1: 32– 33. (in Chinese)

LIJIEWEI.2007.MIHOUTAOXINZHONGZHANGGUOMIHOUTAODESHENGWUXUETEXINGJIPINGJIA.ZHONGGUOGUOSHU,1:32– 33.

Mu Xi-jin, Wang Wen-ling, Cai Da-rong, An He-xiang. 1990. Embryology and embryo rescure of an interspecific cross between Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward and A.erianth. Acta Botanica Sinica, 32: 425– 431. (in Chinese)

母锡金,王文玲,蔡达荣,安和祥.1990.猕猴桃属美味猕猴桃和毛花猕猴桃种间杂交的胚胎学和胚援救.植物学报,32:425– 431.

Qi Xiu-juan, Han Li-xing, Li Ming, Xu Shan-kun, Zhu Ying-shan, Li Wen-xian, Qiao Shu-rui. 2007. Studies on pollen xenia of kiwifruit. Journal of Fruit Science, 24(6): 774– 777. (in Chinese)
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